Patient-Centered and People-Centered Care: Background

Patient-Centered and People-Centered Care: Background

Numerous health care practitioners have recommended redirecting the modern healthcare system from the traditional doctor-centered and disease-centered approaches to one that is more focused on the patients, as well as the people and their communities. Nevertheless, these so-called patient-centered and people-centered approaches are changing the modern delivery of health care services and the roles and […]

Macrophages: Functions, Mechanism, Significance

Macrophages: Functions, Mechanism, Significance

Macrophages are one of the major types of white blood cells or leukocytes of the immune system that play an important role in the innate immune response against pathogens, foreign substances, cancer cells, and cellular debris. What Are Macrophages? Where Do They Come From? How Do They Work? Origins and Development of Macrophages Some of […]

Thymus: Functions and Significance

Thymus: Functions and Significance

The thymus is a primary lymphoid organ located behind the sternum, between the upper portions of the lungs, and in front of the heart. As part of the immune system, it is primarily responsible for the maturation and differentiation of a specific type of white blood cells or leukocytes called thymus leukocytes or T cells. […]

T Cells Explained: Roles and Types of Thymus Lymphocytes

T Cells Explained: Roles and Types of Thymus Lymphocytes

Thymus lymphocytes or T cells are a specific type of white blood cells or leukocytes developed in the thymus organ that play a central role in the immune response and the adaptive immune system. Specifically, T cells attack cells infected by a pathogen, activate other immune cells, and produce cytokines and chemokines, while also playing a […]

What are Chemokines: Role in Immune Response

What are Chemokines: Role in Immune Response

Chemokines are small proteins that form a specific class or subgroup of signaling molecules called cytokines. Note that the word “chemokines” is a neologism for “chemotactic cytokines” coined in 1992 during the Third Symposium on Chemotactic Cytokines. Note that “chemotaxis” pertains to the movement of an organism or cells in response to a chemical stimulus […]

Role of Cytokines: Immunomodulating Agents

Role of Cytokines: Immunomodulating Agents

Cytokines are immunomodulating agents responsible for regulating the immune response. They are produced and secreted by certain immune and non-immune cells. More specifically, they are a broad and loose category of small proteins that collectively function as a significant communication mechanism used by the immune system and the body in general. Functions and Roles in […]

Dexamethasone as COVID-19 Treatment-An Overview

Dexamethasone as COVID-19 Treatment: An Overview

Preliminary results from clinical trials in the United Kingdom suggested that low-dose dexamethasone could reduce death rates by about 30 percent of critically ill COVID-19 patients. The World Health Organization welcomed these results on 16 June 2020. Hence, the administration of this medication has been positioned as a viable and specific treatment option. Possible Explanation […]

Difference Between COVID-19, Influenza, and the Common Cold

Difference Between COVID-19, Influenza, and Colds

The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 or COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 in December 2019 in China and the subsequent global outbreak beginning in January 2020 have raised another concern: how is it different from influenza or flu and the common cold? Remember that COVID-19 is caused by a type of coronavirus now called SARS-CoV-2 […]

The Characteristics of Coronaviruses

The Characteristics of Coronaviruses

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that cause diseases in mammalian, avian, and reptilian species. Note that some species such as bats serve as mere reservoirs of these viruses without causing symptoms associated with an infection. In humans, some of these viruses can cause respiratory tract infections with varying severity ranging from mild illnesses […]

Fast Facts: The SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 Outbreak

Fast Facts: The SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 Outbreak

SARS-CoV-2, previously known as the 2019-nCoV, is the name for a particular type of virus and a more specific type of coronavirus first reported to affect a cluster of people in Wuhan City, China in late 2019 and has been the particular pathogen behind the 2019-2020 COVID-19 outbreak. What is the Novel Coronavirus? Where did […]