What are Chemokines: Role in Immune Response

What are Chemokines: Role in Immune Response

Chemokines are small proteins that form a specific class or subgroup of signaling molecules called cytokines. Note that the word “chemokines” is a neologism for “chemotactic cytokines” coined in 1992 during the Third Symposium on Chemotactic Cytokines. Note that “chemotaxis” pertains to the movement of an organism or cells in response to a chemical stimulus […]

Role of Cytokines: Immunomodulating Agents

Role of Cytokines: Immunomodulating Agents

Cytokines are immunomodulating agents responsible for regulating the immune response. They are produced and secreted by certain immune and non-immune cells. More specifically, they are a broad and loose category of small proteins that collectively function as a significant communication mechanism used by the immune system and the body in general. Functions and Roles in […]

Dexamethasone as COVID-19 Treatment-An Overview

Dexamethasone as COVID-19 Treatment: An Overview

Preliminary results from clinical trials in the United Kingdom suggested that low-dose dexamethasone could reduce death rates by about 30 percent of critically ill COVID-19 patients. The World Health Organization welcomed these results on 16 June 2020. Hence, the administration of this medication has been positioned as a viable and specific treatment option. Possible Explanation […]

Difference Between COVID-19, Influenza, and the Common Cold

Difference Between COVID-19, Influenza, and Colds

The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 or COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 in December 2019 in China and the subsequent global outbreak beginning in January 2020 have raised another concern: how is it different from influenza or flu and the common cold? Remember that COVID-19 is caused by a type of coronavirus now called SARS-CoV-2 […]

The Characteristics of Coronaviruses

The Characteristics of Coronaviruses

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that cause diseases in mammalian, avian, and reptilian species. Note that some species such as bats serve as mere reservoirs of these viruses without causing symptoms associated with an infection. In humans, some of these viruses can cause respiratory tract infections with varying severity ranging from mild illnesses […]

Fast Facts: The SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 Outbreak

Fast Facts: The SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 Outbreak

SARS-CoV-2, previously known as the 2019-nCoV, is the name for a particular type of virus and a more specific type of coronavirus first reported to affect a cluster of people in Wuhan City, China in late 2019 and has been the particular pathogen behind the 2019-2020 COVID-19 outbreak. What is the Novel Coronavirus? Where did […]

Why Tobacco Smoking Can Lead to Impotence

Why Tobacco Smoking Can Lead to Impotence

There is an undeniable link between tobacco smoking and impotence or erectile dysfunction. Of course, impotence can also be caused by a range of physical and psychological factors. But researchers and health experts have also concluded smoking as a risk factor. Separate studies from S. G. Korenman and I. Peate revealed that the incidence of […]

Health At Every Size: The 5 Principles of HAES

Health At Every Size: The 5 Principles of HAES

The Association for Size Diversity and Health or ASDAH has developed and promoted the Health At Every Size or HAES approach as a central element of its advocacy to end discrimination and stigma related to weight, lessen the cultural obsession with weight loss and thinness, and promote acceptance of diverse weights and sizes. Originally developed […]

WHO: Three Dimensions of Burnout

WHO: Three Dimensions of Burnout

The World Health Organization or WHO included burnout in the 2019 iteration of its International Classification of Diseases or IDC-11. It specifically defined the condition as a phenomenon applied in an occupation context, and thus, a syndrome conceptualized resulting from chronic workplace stress that has not been successfully managed. Note that the organization limited the […]

Criteria for Defining Hospital-Acquired Infection

Criteria for Defining Hospital-Acquired Infection

A hospital-acquired infection or HAI is essentially an infection acquired by an individual from a hospital or other health care facilities such as outpatient clinics, nursing homes, rehabilitation facilities, and other clinical settings, among others. Note that HAI is also known as nosocomial infection. The term “nosocomial” directly means “originating in a hospital.” Moreover, several […]