What Is Pareto Optimality?

Pareto optimality is a concept of efficiency promoted by Italian sociologist and economist Vilfredo Pareto. Also known as Pareto efficiency, it has been used in the social sciences such as economics and political science, as well as in moral philosophy and ethics. Note that Pareto used the concept in his studies of economic efficiency and […]

The Basic Principles of Kantian Ethics

Kantian ethics is an ethical theory primarily based on deontological ethics or deontology. German philosopher Immanuel Kant developed the specific tenets behind this theory in response to the Age of Enlightenment. However, as a type of deontological ethics, its basic principle is that the morality of an action should not be based on its consequences […]

What is a Working Paper?

Within the scientific literature, a working paper is a scientific or technical paper produced by researchers to share ideas about a particular topic or obtain feedback from a selected readership, particularly groups of researchers or relevant scientific communities. It is in this regard that a working paper is also called a discussion paper. Take note […]

Brexit: Why UK Left the European Union?

What is Brexit? Why did the majority of the people in the United Kingdom vote to leave the European Union? Why U.K. left the EU? This article provides a quick guide to understanding Brexit and the arguments against EU membership. Brexit Simplified: Reasons Why the United Kingdom Left the European Union 1. Several politicians and economist […]

International Relations: Theories

The following is the list and corresponding descriptions of the major theories of international relations: 1. Realism: A theory of international relations stating that there is an innate disorder in the international system and the relations among international actors are chaotic due to incessant tussle for power and security. 2. Liberalism: Contradicting the theory of […]