Misinformation vs. Disinformation vs. Malinformation

Misinformation vs. Disinformation vs. Malinformation

In their 2017 white paper published by the Council of Europe, researchers Claire Wardle, PhD and Hossein Derakshan presented a framework for understanding and analyzing the challenges related to information disorder. The Wardle-Derakshan Framework also mentioned the three categories of information disorder: misinformation, disinformation, and malinformation. They noted that simplistic terms such as “fake news” […]

Difference Between FBI, CIA, and NSA.jpg

Difference Between FBI, CIA, and NSA

The Federal Bureau of Investigation or FBI, the Central Intelligence Agency or CIA, and the National Security Agency or NSA are federal agencies of the United States that carry out intelligence activities and provide related services. They are also part of the U.S. Intelligence Community alongside other intelligence agencies and offices of the U.S. government. […]

The Impact of Manifest Destiny to Native Americans

The Impact of Manifest Destiny on Native Americans

The impact of manifest destiny to Native Americans was conflict. Of course, this was inevitable due to the fact that the ideology involved American settlers holding to a determined belief that they had a god-given purpose of expanding from the Atlantic coast to the Pacific coast, thus taking and controlling lands that were not originally […]

Manifest Destiny: Origin and Definition

Lexical Origins: Where Did The Term “Manifest Destiny” Originate? Historians have attributed the origin of the term “manifest destiny” to newspaper editor and Democratic Party advocate John O’Sullivan. Accordingly, he specifically coined the term in 1845 to promote the annexation of Texas and the Oregon Country to the United States. Note that he first used […]

Information Literacy: A Definition

Information Literacy: A Definition

The term “information literacy” first appeared in 1974 in a report published by the former National Commission on Libraries and Information Science. Authored by Paul G. Zurkowski, then president of Information Industry Association, the concept pertains to the competencies learned and applied by individuals to exploit different tools and sources for uncovering information, as well […]

The Roles of Women During the American Revolution

The Roles of Women During the American Revolution

The American Revolution did not only result in the independence of the Thirteen Colonies from Great Britain and the establishment of the United States. The momentous sociopolitical upheaval that transpired between 1765 and 1783 became a platform for American women to actively participate in social, political, and economic affairs of the Thirteen Colonies, thus making […]

The Causes of the American Revolution

Simplified: Causes of the American Revolution

The American Revolution that spanned from 1765 to 1783 was a sociopolitical movement and upheaval characterized by a manifested attempt of American colonials from the Thirteen Colonies to challenge the authority of the British Empire. Aside from civic actions, public demonstrations, and economic maneuvering, the revolution included the American Revolutionary War that lasted from 1775 […]

Individualistic vs. Structural: Theories of Poverty

Individualistic vs. Structural: Theories of Poverty

There are two competing schools of thought that theorize the causes of poverty. These are the individualistic theories and structural theories. Each school maintains a general argument for explaining the existence and pervasiveness of poverty. The Two Schools of Thought About the Causes of Poverty: Individualistic Theories vs. Structural Theories of Poverty Individualistic Theories The […]

Difference Between Colonialism and Imperialism

Difference Between Colonialism and Imperialism

The terms “colonialism” and “imperialism” have been used interchangeably outside academic discourse. However, scholars have maintained that these two should be used separately because they have their own distinctive definitions. Colonialism vs. Imperialism: The Difference The word “colonialism” comes from the English word “colony,” which in turn, comes from “colonus,” the Latin word for farmer. […]

Thesis and Dissertation Writing: Guideline and Outline

Thesis and Dissertation Writing: Guideline and Outline

Academic papers, particularly theses and dissertations, usually follow an established structure or format composed of five main sections. Universities adhere to this format to standardize research writing regardless of fields or disciplines, and to make it easier for advisers, panelists, and peer reviewers to evaluate these papers. Nevertheless, the following discussion provides a guideline and […]