Macrophages: Functions, Mechanism, Significance

Macrophages: Functions, Mechanism, Significance

Macrophages are one of the major types of white blood cells or leukocytes of the immune system that play an important role in the innate immune response against pathogens, foreign substances, cancer cells, and cellular debris. What Are Macrophages? Where Do They Come From? How Do They Work? Origins and Development of Macrophages Some of […]

Thymus: Functions and Significance

Thymus: Functions and Significance

The thymus is a primary lymphoid organ located behind the sternum, between the upper portions of the lungs, and in front of the heart. As part of the immune system, it is primarily responsible for the maturation and differentiation of a specific type of white blood cells or leukocytes called thymus leukocytes or T cells. […]

T Cells Explained: Roles and Types of Thymus Lymphocytes

T Cells Explained: Roles and Types of Thymus Lymphocytes

Thymus lymphocytes or T cells are a specific type of white blood cells or leukocytes developed in the thymus organ that play a central role in the immune response and the adaptive immune system. Specifically, T cells attack cells infected by a pathogen, activate other immune cells, and produce cytokines and chemokines, while also playing a […]

What are Chemokines: Role in Immune Response

What are Chemokines: Role in Immune Response

Chemokines are small proteins that form a specific class or subgroup of signaling molecules called cytokines. Note that the word “chemokines” is a neologism for “chemotactic cytokines” coined in 1992 during the Third Symposium on Chemotactic Cytokines. Note that “chemotaxis” pertains to the movement of an organism or cells in response to a chemical stimulus […]

Role of Cytokines: Immunomodulating Agents

Role of Cytokines: Immunomodulating Agents

Cytokines are immunomodulating agents responsible for regulating the immune response. They are produced and secreted by certain immune and non-immune cells. More specifically, they are a broad and loose category of small proteins that collectively function as a significant communication mechanism used by the immune system and the body in general. Functions and Roles in […]

Dexamethasone as COVID-19 Treatment-An Overview

Dexamethasone as COVID-19 Treatment: An Overview

Preliminary results from clinical trials in the United Kingdom suggested that low-dose dexamethasone could reduce death rates by about 30 percent of critically ill COVID-19 patients. The World Health Organization welcomed these results on 16 June 2020. Hence, the administration of this medication has been positioned as a viable and specific treatment option. Possible Explanation […]

COVID-19 Facts: Survivability of SARS-CoV-2 in the Environment

Survivability of SARS-CoV-2 in the Environment

The SARS-CoV-2 virus, previously known by the provisional name nCoV-2019 and the particular coronavirus responsible for COVID-19, has the potential to survive outside of a host and in the environment for several days, thereby making it virulent and a potentially disease-causing contaminant. Remember that the primary mode of transmission of the virus is through tiny […]

Handwashing 101: How Does Soap Work?

Handwashing 101: How Does Soap Work?

The World Health Organization and other medical associations across the world have recommended handwashing using soap as one of the preventive measures against transmissible diseases. In fact, during the Ebola outbreak in Africa and COVID-19 pandemic, proper hand hygiene has been advanced as one of the solutions for containing these diseases. The Science Behind Handwashing […]

Difference Between COVID-19, Influenza, and the Common Cold

Difference Between COVID-19, Influenza, and Colds

The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 or COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 in December 2019 in China and the subsequent global outbreak beginning in January 2020 have raised another concern: how is it different from influenza or flu and the common cold? Remember that COVID-19 is caused by a type of coronavirus now called SARS-CoV-2 […]

The Characteristics of Coronaviruses

The Characteristics of Coronaviruses

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that cause diseases in mammalian, avian, and reptilian species. Note that some species such as bats serve as mere reservoirs of these viruses without causing symptoms associated with an infection. In humans, some of these viruses can cause respiratory tract infections with varying severity ranging from mild illnesses […]