Titanium Dioxide vs. Zinc Oxide in Sunscreens

Titanium Dioxide vs. Zinc Oxide in Sunscreens

Both titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are used in the formulation of a specific variant of sunscreens. More specifically, these two mineral compounds represent one of the two categories of sunscreen formulation: physical sunscreens. Note that chemical sunscreens are based on organic compounds that protect against sunlight by absorbing ultraviolet radiation. On the other hand, […]

UVA vs. UVB Damage: The Difference

UVA vs. UVB Damage: The Difference

Ultraviolet A or UVA and Ultraviolet B or UVB are forms of electromagnetic radiation critical to understanding and addressing the negative effects of prolonged and excessive exposure to sunlight on the skin and overall human health. Both are specific subtypes of ultraviolet radiation. The Sun is their main source on Earth. However, artificial sources include […]

The Science of Sunburn: Causes, Mechanism, and Effects

The Science of Sunburn: Causes, Mechanism, and Effects

A sunburn is a radiation burn that affects primarily the skin and other tissues such as the eyes and lips. Characterized by redness, irritation, and pain, it is generally caused by prolonged and excessive exposure to a subtype of ultraviolet radiation called ultraviolet B or UVB rays. The Sun is the primary source of UV […]

How UV Radiation Damages the Skin, Causes Cancer

How UV Radiation Damages the Skin, Causes Cancer

Ultraviolet or UV is a form of electromagnetic radiation that sits after the visible light and before x-rays in the electromagnetic spectrum. It has a wavelength that ranges from 10nm to 400nm and frequencies ranging from 30 PHz to 750 THz. Note that the spectrum consists of other forms of electromagnetic radiation ranging from extreme […]

Patient-Centered and People-Centered Care: Background

Patient-Centered and People-Centered Care: Background

Numerous health care practitioners have recommended redirecting the modern healthcare system from the traditional doctor-centered and disease-centered approaches to one that is more focused on the patients, as well as the people and their communities. Nevertheless, these so-called patient-centered and people-centered approaches are changing the modern delivery of health care services and the roles and […]

Macrophages: Functions, Mechanism, Significance

Macrophages: Functions, Mechanism, Significance

Macrophages are one of the major types of white blood cells or leukocytes of the immune system that play an important role in the innate immune response against pathogens, foreign substances, cancer cells, and cellular debris. What Are Macrophages? Where Do They Come From? How Do They Work? Origins and Development of Macrophages Some of […]

Thymus: Functions and Significance

Thymus: Functions and Significance

The thymus is a primary lymphoid organ located behind the sternum, between the upper portions of the lungs, and in front of the heart. As part of the immune system, it is primarily responsible for the maturation and differentiation of a specific type of white blood cells or leukocytes called thymus leukocytes or T cells. […]

T Cells Explained: Roles and Types of Thymus Lymphocytes

T Cells Explained: Roles and Types of Thymus Lymphocytes

Thymus lymphocytes or T cells are a specific type of white blood cells or leukocytes developed in the thymus organ that play a central role in the immune response and the adaptive immune system. Specifically, T cells attack cells infected by a pathogen, activate other immune cells, and produce cytokines and chemokines, while also playing a […]

What are Chemokines: Role in Immune Response

What are Chemokines: Role in Immune Response

Chemokines are small proteins that form a specific class or subgroup of signaling molecules called cytokines. Note that the word “chemokines” is a neologism for “chemotactic cytokines” coined in 1992 during the Third Symposium on Chemotactic Cytokines. Note that “chemotaxis” pertains to the movement of an organism or cells in response to a chemical stimulus […]

Role of Cytokines: Immunomodulating Agents

Role of Cytokines: Immunomodulating Agents

Cytokines are immunomodulating agents responsible for regulating the immune response. They are produced and secreted by certain immune and non-immune cells. More specifically, they are a broad and loose category of small proteins that collectively function as a significant communication mechanism used by the immune system and the body in general. Functions and Roles in […]