SPF 101: Understanding Sun Protection Factor

SPF 101: Understanding Sun Protection Factor

The sun protection factor or SPF is a rating system used in sunscreen labeling to partially aid consumers in choosing the most suitable sunscreen product based on their use-case situations or specific intended application. The factor is based on a measure of the fraction of sunburn-causing ultraviolet rays that reach the skin. A Guide to […]

Guide to Choosing a Sunscreen

Guide to Choosing a Sunscreen

Sunscreen provides protection against the harmful effects of exposure to ultraviolet radiation. However, not all sunscreens are made the same. Some use different classes of active ingredients in their formulation. Others can provide broad-spectrum protection against both UVA and UVB rays. There are also sunscreens with different ratings found in their labels. How to Choose […]

Titanium Dioxide vs. Zinc Oxide in Sunscreens

Titanium Dioxide vs. Zinc Oxide in Sunscreens

Both titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are used in the formulation of a specific variant of sunscreens. More specifically, these two mineral compounds represent one of the two categories of sunscreen formulation: physical sunscreens. Note that chemical sunscreens are based on organic compounds that protect against sunlight by absorbing ultraviolet radiation. On the other hand, […]

UVA vs. UVB Damage: The Difference

UVA vs. UVB Damage: The Difference

Ultraviolet A or UVA and Ultraviolet B or UVB are forms of electromagnetic radiation critical to understanding and addressing the negative effects of prolonged and excessive exposure to sunlight on the skin and overall human health. Both are specific subtypes of ultraviolet radiation. The Sun is their main source on Earth. However, artificial sources include […]

The Science of Sunburn: Causes, Mechanism, and Effects

The Science of Sunburn: Causes, Mechanism, and Effects

A sunburn is a radiation burn that affects primarily the skin and other tissues such as the eyes and lips. Characterized by redness, irritation, and pain, it is generally caused by prolonged and excessive exposure to a subtype of ultraviolet radiation called ultraviolet B or UVB rays. The Sun is the primary source of UV […]

How UV Radiation Damages the Skin, Causes Cancer

How UV Radiation Damages the Skin, Causes Cancer

Ultraviolet or UV is a form of electromagnetic radiation that sits after the visible light and before x-rays in the electromagnetic spectrum. It has a wavelength that ranges from 10nm to 400nm and frequencies ranging from 30 PHz to 750 THz. Note that the spectrum consists of other forms of electromagnetic radiation ranging from extreme […]

Explainer: How Sunscreens Work

Explainer: How Sunscreens Work

Sunscreens have become essential in skin care due to the protection they provide from the harmful ultraviolet radiation coming from the sun. Other skincare products such as toners and serums have also included protection benefits against UVA and UVB radiation in their formulation through the addition of chemical or physical sunscreen actives. Nevertheless, to appreciate […]

Physical Sunscreen vs. Chemical Sunscreen: The Difference

Physical Sunscreen vs. Chemical Sunscreen: The Difference

There are two broad types of sunscreen products categorized according to their mode of action. Both provide protection against the adverse effects of UV radiation such as sunburns, photoaging, and skin cancer. It is also important to mention that the term “sunblock” was used in contrast to “sunscreen” to distinguish two different ways topical skincare products […]

Sunscreen vs. Sunblock: What is the Difference

Sunscreen vs. Sunblock: What is the Difference

There are topical skincare products specifically formulated to protect the skin from the damaging and potentially cancerous effects of the sun.  They work by screening or absorbing ultraviolet radiation to prevent sunburns, photoaging, and skin cancers, among others. Some call these products sunscreens. Others call them sunblock lotions. What exactly is the difference between these […]

Purpose of Toner in Skin Care

Purpose of Toner in Skin Care: The Basics

Toners collectively represent a specific category of skincare products. As one of the mainstays in a typical daytime and nighttime skincare routine, a face toner is generally a no-rinse liquid-based cleanser used after washing the face. What Does a Face Toner Do: Specific Uses and Benefits Manufacturers originally developed and marketed toners to balance the […]