Glenn Borchardt: 10 Assumptions of Science

In his book “The Ten Assumptions of Science: Toward a New Scientific Worldview,” Dr. Glenn Borchardt presented a set of assumptions he deemed would define 21st-century scientific philosophy. He specifically argued that assumptions and not absolutes are necessary for scientific thinking. Furthermore, he noted how critical choices among underlying assumptions either clarify or muddle scientific analysis.

The 10 Assumptions of Science According to Glenn Borchardt

1. Materialism

Materialism assumes that the external universe exists after the observer does not. In addition, it implies that an analyst may test the truth of an idea by an interaction with the external world through observation or experiment.

2. Causality

The causality assumption asserts that all effects have an infinite number of material causes. Causality does not stipulate the number of causes. Instead, it assumes that there is some material cause for every effect.

3. Uncertainty

Uncertainty assumes that it is impossible to know everything about anything. However, it is always possible to know more about anything.

4. Inseparability

The inseparability assumption states that there is no motion without matter and no matter without motion.

5. Conservation

Another one of the ten assumptions of science is conservation, which assumes that matter and the motion of matter can be neither created nor destroyed.

6. Complementarity

Complementarity assumes that all bodies are subject to divergence and convergence from other bodies.

7. Irreversibility

All processes are irreversible. A perfect example is that it is impossible to travel back in time.

8. Infinity

The universe is infinite. Note that this assumption applies both in the microcosmic and macrocosmic directions.

9. Relativism

Relativism assumes that all things possess characteristics that make them similar to all other things, as well as characteristics that make them dissimilar to all other things.

10. Interconnection

Smaller objects always exist between any two larger objects, with the small objects being the medium for transmitting motion between the large objects.


  • Borchardt, G. 2004. The Ten Assumptions of Science: Toward a New Scientific Worldview. New York: iUniverse, Inc. ISBN: 0-595-31127-X
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